The number 5 jersey is traditionally worn by centre-backs in football, but like most numbers, players in other positions sport it depending on their countries of birth or other preferences. 

In Brazil, midfielders wear the number 5 shirt, while in Sweden, the left-back wears No 5 as teams are traditionally numbered right to left in a 4-4-2 formation. 

In rare cases, attacking midfielders and strikers have also donned it, and here is a look at the players that wear the number 5 jersey, those that once did so and how they have done in it.

Zinedine Zidane

  • Club: Real Madrid (2001 – 2006)
  • Years jersey was worn: Five 
  • Appearances: 230
  • Goals/Assists: 49/67
  • Trophies: Six

Zizou is arguably the best number 5 of all time, winning one La Liga title, two Supercopa de España, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Super Cup and one Intercontinental Cup while rocking the shirt during his Los Blancos days.

Zidane also won seven other trophies elsewhere, ending his career with 125 goals and 137 assists in 695 games at club level. 

The former French midfielder made the FIFA XI four times, the FIFA FIFPro World XI twice, winning the 1998 Ballon d’Or. 

He was also named the FIFA World Player of the Year three times and has since been inducted into the Real Madrid Hall of Fame.

Alain Roche

  • Club: Girondins Bordeaux (1986/1987, 1988/1989)
  • Paris Saint-Germain (1992 – 1998)
  • Years jersey was worn: Eight 
  • Appearances: 295
  • Goals/Assists: 13/Zero 
  • Trophies: Nine 

The former French defender spent the majority of his career in the Ligue 1 (known back then as Division 1), winning two titles, four Coupe de France (French Cups), two Coupe de la Ligue (League Cups) and one UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup while playing in the number 5 shirt.

Roche won four other trophies in other jersey numbers, ending his club career with 30 goals and two assists in 565 games.

He earned 25 international caps for Les Bleus, scoring once, with his only trophy for country coming while he was with the under-21s, helping them land the UEFA European Under-21 Championship in 1988.

Bernard Mendy

  • Club: Paris Saint-Germain (2003 – 2008)
  • Stade Brestois 29 (2012 – 2014)
  • Chennaiyin (2014 – 2016)
  • Years jersey was worn: 10
  • Appearances: 267
  • Goals/Assists: 14/12
  • Trophies: Four 

The former French right-back sported the number 5 more than any number during his career, winning two Coupe de France, one Coupe de la Ligue and one Indian Super League in it.

Mendy won one UEFA Intertoto Cup in the No. 24 shirt, ending his career with 24 goals and 21 assists in 514 club games.

The one-time UNFP Team of the Year member played thee times for the French senior national team having helped their under-18s win the UEFA European Under-18 Championship in 2000.

Carles Puyol

  • Club: Barcelona (2002 – 2014)
  • Years jersey was worn: 12
  • Appearances: 481
  • Goals/Assists: 17/Nine
  • Trophies: 18

El Tiburón spent all of his career at Camp Nou, donning the number 5 shirt for the majority and winning six La Liga titles, two Copa del Rey (King’s Cups), four Supercopa de España (Spanish Super Cups), three UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA Super Cup and two FIFA Club World Cups in it.

Puyol ended his career with 19 goals and 13 assists in 593 games, scoring three goals in 100 games for the Spanish national team.

The former defender won the 2010 FIFA World Cup and 2008 UEFA European Championship with La Roja, wearing the No. 5 shirt all through his international career and making the FIFA/FIFPro World XI three times.

Daniel Agger

  • Club: Liverpool (2006 – 2014)
  • Years jersey was worn: 
  • Eight 
  • Appearances: 232
  • Goals/Assists: 14/11
  • Trophies: Two 

The former Danish centre-back spent all his time at Anfield in the number 5 top, winning one League Cup and one FA Community Shield. 

Agger also won three other trophies at the other club he played for, Brøndby, ending his career with 21 goals and 15 assists in 299 games.

The two-time Danish Football Player of the Year played 75 international games for the Red and Whites, scoring 12 times.

Fabio Cannavaro

  • Club: Napoli (1993 – 1995)
  • Real Madrid (2006 – 2009)
  • Juventus (2009/10)
  • Years jersey was worn: Six 
  • Appearances: 216
  • Goals/Assists: Two/One 
  • Trophies: Two 

One of the few centre-backs that won the FIFA World Player of the Year and Ballon d’Or played in the number 5 top at three of the six clubs he represented, and for the majority of his international career.

Cannavaro won two La Liga titles in the shirt while at Santiago Bernabeu, winning his four other trophies at Parma.

The former defender ended his career with 19 goals and five assists in 695 games, making the FIFPro World XI twice and emerging as Serie A Defender of the Year twice.

The Italian Football Hall of Famer played 136 games for Gli Azzurri, scoring twice and winning the 2006 FIFA World Cup with them.

Franz Beckenbauer

  • Club: Bayern Munich (1966/67, 1970 – 1977)
  • Hamburger SV (1981/82)
  • Years jersey was worn: Nine
  • Appearances: 376
  • Goals/Assists: 30/44
  • Trophies: 13

The two-time Ballon d’Or winner played in the number 5 shirt for almost the whole of his career for club and country, winning five Bundesliga titles, three DFB-Pokal (German Cups), three European Cups, one European Cup Winners’ Cup and one Intercontinental Cup in the jersey.

Beckenbauer won five other trophies in other numbers, ending his career with 98 goals and 75 assists in 754 club games.

The former German centre-back, often credited as having invented the role of the modern sweeper (libero) ended his international career with 14 goals in 103 games for West Germany, winning the 1974 FIFA World Cup and 1972 UEFA European Championship. 

Beckenbauer was named Footballer of the Year (Germany) four times, making the kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season 12 times, the FIFA World Cup All-Star Team three times and becoming a Member of Germany’s Sports Hall of Fame.

Gabriel Paulista

  • Club: Arsenal (2014 – 2017)
  • Valencia (2017 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Nine 
  • Appearances: 246
  • Goals/Assists: Nine/Seven 
  • Trophies: Four 

The Brazilian centre-back, 31 (1990), has worn the number 5 jersey since his days at Arsenal, winning two FA Cups, one FA Community Shield and one Copa del Rey thus far.

Gabriel has played 436 games so far in his career, scoring 15 goals and assisting another eight.

The two-time Campeonato Baiano Best Central Defender was called up to the Brazil national team for the first time in March 2015 but did not earn a debut.

He obtained a Spanish nationality through residence in December 2020, and made himself available to represent the Spain national team, but has not been called up yet.

Georginio Wijnaldum

  • Club: Newcastle United (2015/16)
  • Liverpool (2016 – 2021)
  • Years jersey was worn: Six 
  • Appearances: 277
  • Goals/Assists: 33/21
  • Trophies: Four 

The 31-year-old (1990) Dutch midfielder sported the number 5 shirt while he was in the Premier League, winning one top-flight title, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Super Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup – all with the Reds. 

On his arrival at Anfield in July 2016, Wijnaldum revealed that he will be holding on to the jersey number because he wore it on his debut for Feyenoord and things went well. 

He claimed it has been a lucky number for him since and did not hesitate to pick it up when he realised it was not occupied by anyone at the Merseyside club.

He has won five other trophies, with a total of 119 goals and 69 assists in 607 club games thus far.

The 2014-15 Dutch Footballer of the Year has 26 goals in 86 international games for the Netherlands.

Harry Maguire

  • Club: Sheffield United (2012 – 2014)
  • Hull City (2016/17)
  • Manchester United (2019 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Seven 
  • Appearances: 290
  • Goals/Assists: 21/13
  • Trophies: One 

The England international centre-back, 29 (1993), has permanently worn the number 5 jersey since he joined the Old Trafford outfit, with his only silverware in the shirt coming when he was with the Tigers, winning the 2016 Championship play-offs.

Maguire, a three-time League One PFA Team of the Year member and the most expensive defender in the world has played 482 games, scoring 28 games and assisting another 24.

The three-time Sheffield United Player of the Year has played 48 games for the Three Lions, scoring seven times.

Ibrahima Konaté 

  • Club: Liverpool (2021 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Two
  • Appearances: 29
  • Goals/Assists: Three/One 
  • Trophies: Three 

The two-time France international centre-back, 23 (1999), has sported the number 5 shirt since moving to Anfield, winning one FA Cup, one FA Community Shield and one League Cup.

Konate has played 145 games across all his clubs to date, scoring nine times and assisting twice.

Johnny Heitinga 

  • Club: Atletico Madrid (2008 – 2009)
  • Everton (2009 – 2014)
  • Hertha BSC (2014/15)
  • Ajax (2015/16)
  • Years jersey was worn: Eight
  • Appearances: 195
  • Goals/Assists: Eight/Five
  • Trophies: None 

The former Dutch centre-back sported number 5 on his back while at Goodison Park, in the La Liga, Bundesliga and his last season at his boyhood club, but was unable to win anything in it.

However, Heitinga won all his nine trophies in other jersey numbers – all at Ajax – ending his career with 35 goals and 10 assists in 425 games.

The 2011-12 Everton Player of the Season and 2007-08 Dutch Footballer of the Year ended his international career with seven goals in 87 appearances, helping them to the final of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, where they lost to Spain.

John Stones

  • Club: Everton (2015/16)
  • Manchester City (2017 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Seven 
  • Appearances: 202
  • Goals/Assists: 11/Four
  • Trophies: Nine

The 28-year-old (1994) English centre-back wore the number 5 top in his last season with Everton and has done so since his second year at the Etihad Stadium, with four Premier League titles, one FA Cup, two League Cups and two FA Community Shields under his belt so far.

Stones has played 325 games for the three clubs he has represented, scoring 15 goals and assisting four times.

The 2014-15 Everton Young Player of the Season and 2020-21 PFA Premier League Team of the Year member has three goals in 59 international appearances for the Three Lions.

Jorginho

  • Club: Chelsea (2018 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Five
  • Appearances: 197
  • Goals/Assists: 27/Nine
  • Trophies: Four

The 30-year-old (1991) deep-lying playmaker has donned the number 5 jersey since he moved to the Premier League, with one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Super Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup to show for it thus far.

Jorginho has two other trophies, winning the Coppa Italia and Supercoppa Italiana with Napoli.

The 2020-21 UEFA Men’s Player of the Year revealed that he opted to wear No. 5 at Stamford Bridge because he thinks it is a strong number, is well-respected in Brazil, has an important place in the history of football, and because Paulo Roberto Falcao wore it.

Jorginho has played 487 games for clubs, scoring 45 goals and weighing in with 31 assists.

The Brazil-born midfielder has five goals in 46 caps for Italy, winning the 2020 UEFA European Championship and making the Team of the Tournament.

He has made the FIFA FIFPro World XI once and was in the Squad of the Season when Chelsea won the Europa League and Champions League.

Kolo Toure 

  • Club: Arsenal (2006 – 2009)
  • Years jersey was worn: Three 
  • Appearances: 135
  • Goals/Assists: Seven/Eight 
  • Trophies: Zero 

Having worn the number 28 shirt in his first four seasons at Emirates Stadium, the former Ivorian centre-back graduated to the number 5 shirt in 2006, going ahead to win nothing in it despite bagging five trophies with the Gunners prior to his switch.

Toure also won four other trophies – two with Manchester City and two with Celtic – ending his career with 19 goals and 18 assists in 520 games.

The African player with the most Premier League appearances (353) and one of the 10 players who have won the Premier League with two clubs played 120 international games for the Elephants, scoring seven times, winning the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations and making the Team of the Tournament. 

Kurt Zouma

  • Club: Chelsea (2014 – 2017)
  • Everton (2018/19)
  • Years jersey was worn: Four 
  • Appearances: 107
  • Goals/Assists: Six/Five
  • Trophies: Three

The France international centre-back, 27 (1994), wore the number 5 jersey in his first three seasons with the Blues and during a loan spell at Goodison Park, winning two Premier League titles and a League Cup.

Zouma won three other trophies in other jersey numbers, with 20 goals and 11 assists in 348 games so far.

The 2014-15 Chelsea Young Player of the Year has a goal in 11 caps for Les Bleus, missing out on the 2018 World Cup-winning squad, with the 2013 FIFA under-20 World Cup his only international silverware at any level.

Laurent Blanc

  • Club: Montpellier (1989/90)
  • Marseille (1997 – 1999)
  • Inter Milan (1999 – 2001)
  • Manchester United (2002/03)
  • Years jersey was worn: Seven 
  • Appearances: 236
  • Goals/Assists: 37/Two 
  • Trophies: Two

Le Président spent a lot of his playing career for club and country in the number 5 shirt, winning one Coupe de France and one Premier League title. 

Blanc also won five other trophies, ending his career with 137 goals and six assists in 708 games.

The former French centre-back and 1990 French Player of the Year played 97 games for his country, scoring 16 times, winning the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2000 UEFA European Championship.

Marquinhos

  • Club: Paris Saint-Germain (2013 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: 10
  • Appearances: 
  • Goals/Assists: 
  • Trophies: 

The 28-year-old Brazilian (1994) centre-back and defensive midfielder has played in the number 5 jersey since he moved to Parc des Princes, winning seven Ligue 1 titles, six Coupe de France, six Coupe de la Ligue and seven Trophée des Champions so far.

Marquinhos also has a Copa Libertadores to his name, with 37 goals and 10 assists in 419 games under his belt so far.

The four-time UNFP Ligue 1 Team of the Year member has played 71 games for the Samba Boys, scoring five times and winning the 2019 Copa América and making the Copa América Team of the Tournament in 2021.

Martin Keown   

  • Club: Aston Villa (1986/87)
  • Everton (1989/90, 1990/91)
  • Arsenal (1993/94, 1999 – 2004)
  • Leicester City (2004/05)
  • Reading (2004/05)
  • Years jersey was worn: 10
  • Appearances: 335
  • Goals/Assists: Three/Two
  • Trophies: Seven 

The former English centre-back sported the number 5 shirt for most of his playing days, winning two Premier League titles, two FA Cups, two FA Community Shields and one European Cup Winners’ Cup in it. 

Keown also won three other trophies in other jerseys, ending his career with 14 goals and seven assists in 757 games.

He scored twice in 43 international games for England, representing them at the 1998 and 2002 World Cups and Euro 1992 and Euro 2000.

Mats Hummels

  • Club: Bayern Munich (2016 – 2019)
  • Years jersey was worn: Three 
  • Appearances: 116
  • Goals/Assists: Eight/10
  • Trophies: Seven 

The German centre-back, 33 (1988), played in the number 5 top at Allianz Arena and has done so for the national team since making his debut, winning three Bundesliga titles, one DFB-Pokal and three DFL-Supercups.

Hummels has also won seven other trophies so far, all with Borussia Dortmund. 

The six-time Bundesliga Team of the Season and seven-time kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season member has played 599 games so far, with 46 goals and 33 assists to his name.

Hummels has five goals in 76 appearances for Die Mannschaft, winning the 2014 FIFA World Cup with them.

Michael Essien

  • Club: Chelsea (2005 – 2014)
  • PERSIB Bandung (2017)
  • Years jersey was worn: 11
  • Appearances: 286
  • Goals/Assists: 30/21
  • Trophies: Nine

The former Ghanaian midfielder played in the number 5 jersey all through his days at Stamford Bridge, winning two Premier League titles, four FA Cups, one League Cup, one FA Community Shield and one UEFA Champions League. 

Essien won the four other trophies of his career with Lyon. 

The 2004-05 Ligue 1 Player of the Year and 2006-07 Chelsea Player of the Year finished his career with 58 goals, 22 assists and 545 appearances.

Essien played 59 games for the Black Stars of Ghana, scoring nine times and making the CAF Team of the Year on four occasions.

Michael Keane

  • Club: Burnley (2015 – 2017)
  • Everton (2019 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: 
  • Appearances: 200
  • Goals/Assists: 18/Nine
  • Trophies: None 

The England international centre-back, 29 (1993), is one of the popular players that wear the number 5 jersey, with a total of 24 goals and 13 assists in 349 games to his name so far.

Keane won the Championship with Burnley in 2015-16, making the PFA Team of the Year.

The Manchester United academy graduate has a goal in 12 caps for the Three Lions.

Milan Baros

  • Club: Liverpool (2002 – 2005)
  • Years jersey was worn: Four 
  • Appearances: 108
  • Goals/Assists: 27/11
  • Trophies: Two 

The preferred jersey number of the 40-year-old (1981) Czech Republic striker was already occupied by someone else by the time he got to Anfield so he opted for the number 5 jersey.

Baros ended up winning one League Cup and the 2004-05 UEFA Champions League with the Reds, with six other trophies in other numbers to his name.

The 2004 UEFA European Championship Golden Boot winner and 2008-09 Süper Lig top scorer with 20 goals has 177 goals and 61 assists in 556 games, with 41 goals in 93 international caps for his country.

Nathan Ake

  • Club: AFC Bournemouth (2016 – 2020)
  • Years jersey was worn: Four 
  • Appearances: 121
  • Goals/Assists: 11/Six
  • Trophies: None 

The 27-year-old Dutch defender sported the number 5 shirt during his time with the Cherries, helping to keep them up in the Premier League.

Ake has since won five trophies in other jersey numbers, with 16 goals and eight assists to his name so far in 218 club games. 

The 2012-13 Chelsea Young Player of the Year, 2015-16 Watford Young Player of the Season and 2017-18 AFC Bournemouth Supporters Player of the Season has scored three goals in 39 appearances for the Netherlands.

Pablo Zabaleta

  • Club: Manchester City (2008 – 2017)
  • West Ham United (2017 – 2020)
  • Years jersey was worn: 12
  • Appearances: 413
  • Goals/Assists: 13/29
  • Trophies: Six 

The retired Argentine right-back spent all of his Premier League career with the number 5 on his back, winning two Premier League titles, one FA Cup, two League Cups and one FA Community Shield.

Zabaleta won his other trophy with Espanyol, ending his illustrious career with 24 goals and 32 assists in 594 games.

The 2012-13 PFA Team of the Year member played 58 international games for the White and Sky Blue. 

Raphaël Varane

  • Club: Real (2016 – 2021)
  • Years jersey was worn: Five 
  • Appearances: 210
  • Goals/Assists: 11/Five
  • Trophies: 11

The 29-year-old (1993) France international centre-back played in the number 5 jersey in his last five seasons at Santiago Bernabeu, doing justice to the famous shirt by winning two La Liga titles, two Supercopa de España, two UEFA Champions Leagues, two UEFA Super Cups and three FIFA Club World Cups.

Varane also won seven other trophies in other shirts, with a total of 20 goals and eight assists in 420 club appearances so far.

The 2018 FIFA FIFPro World XI member has five goals in 87 games for France, helping them win the 2018 FIFA World Cup and 2020-21 UEFA Nations League. 

Rio Ferdinand 

  • Club: Manchester United (2003 – 2014)
  • Queens Park Rangers (2014/15)
  • Years jersey was worn: 12
  • Appearances: 421
  • Goals/Assists: Eight/Eight 
  • Trophies: 13

One of England’s greatest ever players is perhaps the best number 5 that the Premier League has ever seen.

Ferdinand wore the shirt from his second season at Old Trafford till he left, winning five Premier League titles, two League Cups, four FA Community Shields, one UEFA Champions League and one FIFA Club World Cup in it.

The English Football Hall of Famer also won two other trophies in other shirt numbers, making the FIFPro World XI once and the PFA Premier League Team of the Year six times.

Ferdinand, who was named West Ham United Hammer of the Year in 1997-98 ended his career with 13 goals and 12 assists in 709 games.

He played 81 games for the Three Lions majorly in the No. 5 shirt, scoring three goals.

Rodrigo De Paul 

  • Club: Atletico Madrid (2021 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Two
  • Appearances: 56
  • Goals/Assists: Five/Three
  • Trophies: None 

The 28-year-old (1994) Argentina international midfielder has sported the number 5 top since moving to Cívitas Metropolitano.

De Paul is yet to win any silverware at club level, with 48 goals and 50 assists to his name in 356 games.

He has scored twice in 43 games for his national team, helping them win the 2021 Copa América and 2022 CONMEBOL – UEFA Cup of Champions. 

Sergio Busquets

  • Club: Barcelona (2014 – date)
  • Years jersey was worn: Nine 
  • Appearances: 402
  • Goals/Assists: Seven/25
  • Trophies: 14

The Spain international midfielder, 34 (1988), has taken over the number 5 shirt since Puyol retired upon the former captain’s request, winning four La Liga titles, five Copa del Rey, two Supercopa de España, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Super Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup in it.

Busquets won 16 other trophies in No. 28 and No. 16 jerseys, with 20 goals and 43 assists in 711 games for Barca so far.

The 2015-16 La Liga Team of the Season member has two goals in 139 club games for Spain, where he also dons the No. 5 top, playing vital roles as they won the 2010 FIFA World Cup and 2012 UEFA European Championship. 

Thomas Vermaelen 

  • Club: Arsenal (2009-2014)
  • Years jersey was worn: Five 
  • Appearances: 150
  • Goals/Assists: 15/Six 
  • Trophies: One 

The former Belgian centre-back rocked the number 5 jersey while with the Gunners, winning the 2013-14 FA Cup in it.

Vermaelen also won 16 other trophies before retiring with 28 goals and 11 assists in 420 games.

The 2009-10 PFA Premier League Team of the Year member ended his international career with two goals in 85 games for the Red Devils.

Wes Morgan

  • Club: Nottingham Forest (2005 – 2012)
  • Leicester City (2012 – 2021)
  • Years jersey was worn: 16
  • Appearances: 681
  • Goals/Assists: 26/Seven 
  • Trophies: Three 

The former Jamaican international centre-back played in the number 5 shirt for the majority of his career, winning the Championship, Premier League title and FA Cup with the Foxes.

The Nottingham-born Morgan ended his career with 29 goals and seven assists in 730 games, making the Championship PFA Team of the Year three times and Premier League PFA Team of the Year once.

The 2012-13 Leicester City Player of the Season and Leicester City Players’ Player of the Season played international 30 games for the Reggae Boyz, making the 2016 CONCACAF Best XI. 

Honourable Mentions 

  • Abelardo
  • Alfredo Amarillo
  • Allenby Chilton
  • Andy Linighan
  • Antonio de la Cruz 
  • Antonio Torres 
  • Bill Foulkes
  • Claudio Gentile
  • Daniel Van Buyten
  • Dominique Bathenay
  • Eusebio
  • Fabian Schär
  • Fernando Couto
  • Fernando Redondo
  • Fodé
  • Ballo-Touré
  • Francisco Calvet Puig
  • Gallego
  • Gheorghe Popescu
  • Gordon McQueen
  • Grant Hanley
  • Gustavo Biosca
  • Jack O’Connell
  • Jack Stephens
  • James Chester
  • James Tarkowski
  • James Tomkins
  • Jan Vertonghen
  • John O’Brien
  • Joleon Lescott
  • José Albaladejo
  • Juan Carlos
  • Kevin Moran
  • Kyle Beckerman
  • Lee Sharpe
  • Lewis Dunk
  • Lubos Kubik
  • Manuel Corró
  • Marcos Rojo
  • Marcell Jansen
  • Marcelo Bordon
  • Marcelo Saragosa
  • Mark Jones
  • Mark Wright
  • Martí Vergés
  • Matt Besler
  • Michael Keane
  • Miguel Ángel Nadal
  • Migueli
  • Mike Phelan
  • Miquel Corominas 
  • Nathan Ake
  • Niko Kovac
  • Oguchi Onyewu
  • Paul McGrath
  • Paulo Roberto Falcão
  • Pep Guardiola
  • Peter Schöttel
  • Quique Álvarez
  • Ray Kennedy
  • Ricardo Serna
  • Rodolfo Cardoso
  • Ronald Koeman 
  • Ronnie Whelan
  • Ronny Johnsen
  • Ryan Bennett
  • Ryan McBride
  • Sebastian Prödl
  • Salif Sane
  • Samuel Eto’o 
  • Sebastian Kehl
  • Sergi Barjuán
  • Sokratis Papastathopoulos
  • Steve Bould 
  • Steve Jolley
  • Steve Staunton 
  • Tente Sánchez
  • Tenywa Bonseu
  • Thiago Santos
  • Thomas Dooley
  • Thomas Partey
  • Víctor Muñoz